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Hitler tried to create 'Talking Dog' troop for World War 2


It's further proof that Hitler was barking mad.In his new book Amazing Dogs: A Cabinet of Canine Curiosities, Cardiff University historian Jan Bondeson mines obscure German periodicals to reveal the Nazis' failed attempt to breed an army of educated dogs that could read, write and talk. "In the 1920s, Germany had numerous 'new animal psychologists' who believed dogs were nearly as intelligent as humans, and capable of abstract thinking and communication," he writes. "When the Nazi party took over, one might have thought they would be building concentration camps to lock these fanatics up, but instead they were actually very interested in their ideas."
According to the book, scientists envisioned a day when dogs would serve alongside German troops, and perhaps free up SS officers by guarding concentration camps. So to unlock all that canine potential, Hitler set up a Tier-Sprechschule(Animal Talking School) near Hanover and recruited "educated dogs" from throughout the country. Teachers claimed a number of incredible findings. An Airedale terrier named Rolf became a mythic figure of the project after teachers said he could spell by tapping his paw on a board (the number of taps represented the various letters of the alphabet). With that skill in hand, he mused on religion, learned foreign languages and even asked a noblewoman, "Can you wag your tail?" Perhaps most outlandish is the claim by his German masters that he asked to serve in the German army because he disliked the French. Another mutt barked "Mein Fuhrer" when asked to describe Hitler. And Don, a German pointer, is said to have imitated a human voice to bark, "Hungry! Give me cakes!" in German.
Germany's love of dogs may have blinded the Nazis to the outlandish goals of their project. "Part of the Nazi philosophy was that there was a strong bond between humans and nature. They believed a good Nazi should be an animal friend," Bondeson says. "Indeed, when they started interning Jews, the newspapers were flooded with outraged letters from Germans wondering what had happened to the pets they left behind."
Hitler, a well-known dog-lover, had two German Shepherds named Blondi and Bella. He killed Blondi shortly before killing himself in 1945.
-the sun 

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Chennai Super Kings Roars Again


Congrats Chennai Super Kings for becoming the world’s No. 1 T20 team. The season turns to be an excellent one for CSK - IPL-1 runners, IPL-2 semi finalists, IPL-3 winners,Champions League T20 winners and now the winners of IPL-4 as well. Congrats again!! :)
 

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Arsenic Eating Bacteria Discovered!!!


What Poison? Bacterium Uses Arsenic to Build DNA and Other Molecules

From elephants to the bacterium Escherichia coli, all forms of life on Earth depend on the same six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. “The paradigm is that the chemistry of life is so specific that any change in chemistry also changes molecular stability and reactivity, which would not be tolerated,” says Clara Chan, a geomicrobiologist at the University of Delaware, Newark.

In a paper published online by Science (www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1197258) this week, however, an exception to that rule makes a surprising debut. Meet GFAJ-1, a bacterial strain that researchers say can replace the phosphorus in its key biomolecules, including DNA, with the legendary poison arsenic. “This is a very impressive and exciting discovery,” says Barry Rosen, a biochemist at Florida International University in Miami. “The implication of this work is that life can be quite different from what we know,” agrees Chan.
Figure
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    Search for unusual life. 
    Felisa Wolfe-Simon collects samples from Mono Lake (left), where high arsenic levels proved conducive to the evolution of arsenic-using microbes.
    CREDITS: HENRY BORTMAN
    In 2009, Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a geomicrobiologist based at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California, and two colleagues argued that arsenic could have stood in for phosphorus in ancient living systems. Phosphorus, in the form of the compound phosphate, forms the backbone of strands of DNA and RNA, as well as ATP and NAD, two molecules key to energy transfer in a cell. Arsenic, Wolfe-Simon pointed out, sits just below phosphorus on the periodic table and has similar chemical properties. Indeed, its toxicity to people and most forms of life arises when cells try to use arsenic in lieu of phosphorus.
    Despite that, Wolfe-Simon speculated that some microbes might be able to adapt to using arsenic. Others were skeptical. The arsenic-containing compound arsenate is much more unstable than phosphate in water, and no cell would be able to cope with that, critics argued.
    To test her hypothesis, Wolfe-Simon collected mud from Mono Lake, California, a desert body of water known for having high arsenic levels, and grew the microorganisms from it in increasing concentrations of arsenate. She didn't add any phosphate or other phosphorus-containing compounds to the growth medium, as is typically done to sustain microbes. Instead, she periodically transferred the growing cultures to a new dish to reduce the concentration of any original phosphorus to the point that any microbe making new DNA or other biomolecules would need to use the arsenic to survive.

    Like others, says Wolfe-Simon, she didn't really expect to find any survivors. So she was thrilled and surprised when one evening she checked the latest cultures under the microscope and saw fast-moving bacteria. She rechecked the components of the culture media to confirm there were no phosphorus contaminants. She and her colleagues then began to subject the microbes to sophisticated analyses to see if arsenic had been utilized by the bacteria. “I held my breath with every one,” says Wolfe-Simon.
    One form of mass spectrometry showed that the arsenic was inside the bacterial cells and not some impurity sticking to the outside of the cell. When the researchers added radioactively labeled arsenate to the bacteria's culture, they were later able to discern its presence in the protein, lipid, nucleic acid, and metabolite fractions of the cells, suggesting that arsenic had been incorporated in molecules forming each fraction. They also separated out the DNA from the bacteria and analyzed its composition using a technique called high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry; the isolated DNA contained arsenic.
    Tests utilizing the intense x-rays at a synchrotron facility offered additional support, indicating that at least some of the arsenic in the bacteria was in the form of arsenate with the appropriate molecular bonds to carbon and oxygen atoms to replace the phosphates in DNA and other molecules.
    Such work has convinced many that Wolfe-Simon's team has isolated a bacterium that uses arsenic to grow. “The organization of the experiments presents convincing and exhaustive results,” says Milva Pepi, an environmental microbiologist at the University of Siena in Italy. But not everyone agrees. Rosen finds the study “believable” but says he still has lingering concerns that the arsenic is simply concentrated in the bacterial cell's extensive vacuoles and not incorporated into its biochemistry. He would like to see Wolfe-Simon's team demonstrate a functional arsenic-containing enzyme, for example. Steven Benner, an astrobiologist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution in Gainesville, Florida, is more skeptical: That GFAJ-1 uses arsenic as a replacement for phosphorus, “is, in my opinion, not established by this work,” he says.
    Wolfe-Simon isn't arguing that GFAJ-1 prefers, or even naturally uses, arsenic. Mono Lake has a lot of phosphorus as well as arsenic, and the strain grows better when supplied with phosphorus. But to her and others, GFAJ-1 is proof that phosphorus-free life forms can exist and may do so somewhere on Earth. Next, Wolfe-Simon wants to collect samples from places with high arsenic but low phosphorus concentrations in hopes of finding microbes that depend solely on the former.
    Wolfe-Simon speculates that organisms like GFAJ-1 could have thrived in the arsenic-laden hydrothermal vent–like environments of early Earth, where some researchers think life first arose, and that later organisms may have adapted to using phosphorus. Others say they'll refrain from such speculation until they see more evidence of GFAJ-1's taste for arsenic and understand how the DNA and other biomolecules can still function with the element incorporated. “As in this type of game changer, some people will rightly want more proof,” says microbiologist Robert Gunsalus of the University of California, Los Angeles. “There is much to do in order to firmly put this microbe on the biological map.”

    Concerns Aired About Arsenic-Containing Bacteria

    A debate that erupted 5 months ago over whether a bacterium incorporates arsenic into its DNA is about to start simmering again. Today online in Science eight research groups voice their concerns about a paper thatappeared 2 December 2010 online in Science and will be published in next week's issue of the journal. The original article presented an exception to one of the fundamental rules of life on Earth. To survive, microbes, plants, and animals all require six essential elements: oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. But NASA astrobiology fellow Felicia Wolfe-Simon and her colleagues isolated a bacterium that, when grown with high arsenic concentrations and no added phosphorus, appears to replace some phosphorus with the chemically similar arsenic in key biomolecules, including DNA.
    A startling discovery in and of itself, the finding became even more controversial because a NASA press announcement in December implied a connection to the search for extraterrestrial life. Yet many scientists were sharply critical of the paper, including several who blogged about their concerns in posts that drew hundreds of comments that offered additional attacks on the work. When journalists tried to follow up, Wolfe-Simon, then at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California, and her colleagues initially declined to respond, fuelingspeculations about the soundness of the research. The group eventually posted a response. And in a subsequent interview, Wolfe-Simon said she and her co-authors welcomed the debate but, "We wanted to be able to have that discourse in the scientific community, as a record."
    That discourse has now begun with the so-called Technical Comments published today online by Science, along with a response by Wolfe-Simon and her colleagues. The exchange does not put forth new data on the matter, but centers on the original experiments in which Wolfe-Simon isolated bacteria from arsenic-laden Mono Lake, California, and then tried to grow them in cultures with large amounts of arsenic and no phosphorus, which is typically required for growth. One strain called GFAJ-1 still managed to multiply, despite the dearth of phosphorus, the original paper reported
    Several of the Technical Comments question whether contamination or background levels of phosphorus in the cultures could have fueled this growth. Another researcher worries that the DNA that was described as likely having arsenic incorporated in its structure might have been contaminated. Others suggest that arsenic compounds are too unstable to replace phosphorus compounds and be functional. "Their hypothesis that this microorganism contains DNA and other standard biomolecules in which arsenate atoms replace phosphorus atoms would, if true, set aside nearly a century of chemical data concerning arsenate and phosphate molecules," writes Steven Benner, an astrobiologist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution in Gainesville, Florida, in one of the Technical Comments
    Wolfe-Simon's team has acknowledged that there were indeed trace amounts of phosphorus in the media used, contributed by mineral salts—they even noted this in their paper. But Wolfe-Simons maintains there was not enough background phosphorus to drive the bacterial growth.
    University of British Columbia microbiologist Rosie Redfield, the blogger most critical of Wolfe-Simon both personally and professionally, asserts in one of the Technical Comments that Wolfe-Simon did not go far enough in purifying DNA from GFAJ-1 before testing it for its arsenic components.
    The issue of whether arsenic-containing molecules would be stable in a cell is the subject of three of the Technical Comments. In the cytoplasm, arsenate would be reduced to arsenite, which would not be able to substitute for phosphate, Barbara Schoepp-Cothenet, from the Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines in Marseilles, France, and colleagues, claim in one comment. Moreover, phosphates are incorporated into DNA early in a multistep process, and an arsenic substitute would be unlikely to survive that process intact, notes Benner.
    In a response accompanying the Technical Comments, Wolfe-Simon and her co-authors point to work by others that suggests that these arsenic compounds would last longer when part of large biomolecules. Her group has proposed that the bacterium might sequester the arsenic compounds to protect them from breaking down. "In the comments, there were lots of good points that were raised," says Wolfe-Simon's co-author Samuel Webb, a biogeochemist at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource in Menlo Park, California. "With anything this intriguing or controversial, there will always be multiple sides."
    Examples of "lowly bacteria found in a foul-smelling hot spring near Mono Lake, California is a living window into Earth’s early history, a time when photosynthesis was barely evolved and the atmosphere non-existent." 
    In a note published along with the comments and the response, Bruce Alberts, Science's Editor-in-Chief, acknowledges that the debate over the bacterium is far from over, writing: "We recognize that some issues remain unresolved. However, the discussion published online today is only a step in a much longer process."

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    Social networking Sites In India


    Top 13 Social networking sites in India:


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    Facebook (World website Rank: 2 | Social Networking Rank: 1)


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    Facebook is a social network service and website launched in February 2004 that is operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. As of July 2010[update] Facebook has more than 500 million active users. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow computer science students





    Twitter (World website Rank: 9 | Social Networking Rank: 2)


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    Twitter is a website, owned and operated by Twitter Inc., which offers a social networking and microblogging service, enabling its users to send and read other users’ messages called tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the user’s profile page.




    LinkedIn (World website Rank: 22 | Social Networking Rank: 3)



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    LinkedIn is a business-oriented social networking site. Founded in December 2002 and launched in May 2003, it is mainly used for professional networking. As of 2 November 2010 (2010 -11-02), LinkedIn had more than 80 million registered users, spanning more than 200 countries and territories worldwide






    MySpace (World website Rank: 37 | Social Networking Rank: 4)


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    MySpace is a social networking website. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California. Myspace became the most popular social networking site in the United States in June 2006. According to comScore, Myspace was overtaken internationally by its main competitor, Facebook, in April 2008. Myspace employs 1,000 employees, after laying off 30 percent of its workforce in June 2009





    Digg (World website Rank: 122 | Social Networking Rank: 5)


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    Digg is a social news website. Formerly, the site’s cornerstone function consisted of letting people vote stories up or down, called digging and burying, respectively, but as of Digg v4, the “bury” function has been removed. Digg’s popularity has prompted the creation of other social networking sites with story submission and voting systems. The website traffic ranked 122nd by Alexa.com as of November 13, 2010. Quantcast estimates Digg’s monthly U.S. unique visits at 15.1 million





    Orkut (World website Rank: 86 | Social Networking Rank: 6)


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    Orkut is a social networking website that is owned and operated by Google Inc. The service is designed to help users meet new friends and maintain existing relationships. The website is named after its creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. Although Orkut is less popular in the United States than competitors Facebook and MySpace, it is one of the most visited websites in India and Brazil.





    Hi5 (World website Rank: 135 | Social Networking Rank: 7)


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    Hi5 is a social networking website. The company was founded in 2003 by Ramu Yalamanchi. Quantcast reports Hi5 has 2.7 million monthly US visitors and 46.1 million global visitors





    Badoo (World website Rank: 137 | Social Networking Rank:


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    Badoo is a multi-lingual social networking website, managed out of a London headquarters, but owned by a company in Cyprus. The site allows users to create profiles, send each other messages, and rate each other’s profile pictures at no cost, but charges fees for features which are designed to make the user’s profile more visible to other users, thereby increasing the opportunities to attract attention. Charging for these enhanced visibility features is the site’s primary business model.
    Badoo includes a geographic proximity feature, which identifies users’ locations based on analysis of their network connection. This lets users know if there are people near to their current location who may wish to meet.




    StumbleUpon (World website Rank: 159 | Social Networking Rank: 9)


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    StumbleUpon is a discovery engine (a form of web search engine) that finds the best of the web, recommended to each unique user. It allows its users to discover and rate Web pages, photos, and videos that are personalized to their tastes and interests using peer-sourcing and social-networking principles

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    USB Typewriter


    Maybe the typewriter isn't dead just yet. 
    A U.S. designer has created a USB Typewriter conversion kit that allows computer users to type on their machines using an old-school typewriter keyboard. 
    The kit plugs into the USB port on a laptop, monitor or iPad via a sensor board. 
    Scroll down for video
    Retro: U.S. designer Jack Zylkin has created this USB Typewriter conversion kit that allows computer users to type on their machines using an old-school typewriter keyboard
    Retro: U.S. designer Jack Zylkin has created this USB Typewriter conversion kit that allows computer users to type on their machines using an old-school typewriter keyboard
    Inventor Jack Zylkin said: 'It's a new and ground-breaking innovation in the field of obsolescence.' 
    Mr Zylkin sells complete kits, which include the typewriter itself, on retail website Etsy.com.

    They retail for between $699 and $899 depending on the model. Mr Zylkin also sells do it yourself kits, starting at $74.
    The modification is 'easy to install,' according to a statement on usbtypewriter.com.
    Costly: Mr Zylkin sells complete kits, which include the typewriter itself on website Etsy.com which retail for between $699 and $899 depending on the model
    Costly: Mr Zylkin sells complete kits, which include the typewriter itself on website Etsy.com which retail for between $699 and $899 depending on the model

    'It involves no messy wiring, and does not change the outward appearance of the typewriter (except for the usb adapter itself, which is mounted in the rear of the machine),' the statement continues.
    The high-tech typewriters are marketed to 'lovers of the look, feel, and quality of old fashioned manual typewriters,' who can now use them as keyboards for any USB-capable computer.
    The machine, introduced in July of 2010, has since become a hit with retro-style aficionados, receiving 100 per cent positive feedback on Etsy.com.
    One user commented on the brand's website: 'I know several people who at least claim to be nostalgic for the old typewriter days; this would make it possible to call their bluff :-) . And who knows, they might actually like it?'
    Cheaper alternative: A DIY modification that retails for $74 is 'easy to install,' according to a statement on usbtypewriter.com
    Cheaper alternative: A DIY modification that retails for $74 is 'easy to install,' according to a statement on usbtypewriter.com

    See the Video:

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    Mom Saves the Child



     







    Its not unusual... already i have posted in my blog the same news but for a female cub : See here <3

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