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Cambrian explosion of Life on Earth

The rate of the evolution of life as recorded by fossils accelerated in the Cambrian period (542–488 Ma). The sudden emergence of many new species, phyla, and forms in this period is called the Cambrian Explosion. The biological fomenting in the Cambrian Explosion was unpreceded before and since that time. Whereas the Ediacaran life forms appear yet primitive and not easy to put in any modern group, at the end of the Cambrian most modern phyla were already present. The development of hard body parts such as shells, skeletons or exoskeletons in animals like molluscs, echinoderms, crinoids and arthropods (a well-known group of arthropods from the lower Paleozoic are the trilobites) made the preservation and fossilization of such life forms easier than those of their Proterozoic ancestors. For this reason, much more is known about life in and after the Cambrian than about that of older periods. Some of these Cambrian groups appear complex but are quite different from modern life; examples are Anomalocaris and Haikouichthys.

During the Cambrian, the first vertebrate animals, among them the first fishes, had appeared. A creature that could have been the ancestor of the fishes, or was probably closely related to it, was Pikaia. It had a primitive notochord, a structure that could have developed into a vertebral column later. The first fishes with jaws (Gnathostomata) appeared during the next geological period, the Ordovician. The colonisation of new niches resulted in massive body sizes. In this way, fishes with increasing sizes evolved during the early Paleozoic, such as the titanic placoderm Dunkleosteus, which could grow 23 feet (7 m) long.

The diversity of life forms did not increase greatly because of a series of mass extinctions that define widespread biostratigraphic units called biomeres. After each extinction pulse, the continental shelf regions were repopulated by similar life forms that may have been evolving slowly elsewhere. By the late Cambrian, the trilobites had reached their greatest diversity and dominated nearly all fossil assemblages.

Explanation from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Earth#Cambrian_explosion

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Photosynthesis Evolution and Oxygen Revolution on Earth

Photosynthesis Evolution
Early photosynthetic systems, such as those in green and purple sulfur and green and purple nonsulfur bacteria, are thought to have been anoxygenic, and used various other molecules as electron donors rather than water. Green and purple sulfur bacteria are thought to have used hydrogen and sulfur as electron donors. Green nonsulfur bacteria used various amino and other organic acids as an electron donor. Purple nonsulfur bacteria used a variety of nonspecific organic molecules. The use of these molecules is consistent with the geological evidence that Earth's early atmosphere was highly reducing at that time.

Fossils of what are thought to be filamentous photosynthetic organisms have been dated at 3.4 billion years old.

The main source of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere derives from oxygenic photosynthesis, and its first appearance is sometimes referred to as the oxygen catastrophe. Geological evidence suggests that oxygenic photosynthesis, such as that in cyanobacteria, became important during the Paleoproterozoic era around 2 billion years ago. Modern photosynthesis in plants and most photosynthetic prokaryotes is oxygenic. Oxygenic photosynthesis uses water as an electron donor, which is oxidized to molecular oxygen (O2) in the photosynthetic reaction center.

Oxygen Revolution

The Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation, was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere. Although geological, isotopic, and chemical evidence suggest that this major environmental change happened around 2.3 billion years ago (2.3 Ga), the actual causes and the exact date of the event are very contested amongst the scientific community. It has been argued that current geochemical and biomarker evidence for the development of oxygenic photosynthesis before the Great Oxidation Event has been mostly inconclusive.

Oceanic cyanobacteria, having developed into multicellular forms more than 2.3 billion years ago (approximately 200 million years before the GOE), became the first microbes to produce oxygen by photosynthesis. Before the GOE, any free oxygen they produced was chemically captured by dissolved iron or organic matter. The GOE was the point when these oxygen sinks became saturated and could not capture all of the oxygen that was produced by cyanobacterial photosynthesis. After the GOE, the excess free oxygen started to accumulate in the atmosphere.

The increased production of oxygen set Earth's original atmosphere off balance. Free oxygen is toxic to obligate anaerobic organisms, and the rising concentrations may have wiped out most of the Earth's anaerobic inhabitants at the time. Cyanobacteria were therefore responsible for one of the most significant extinction events in Earth's history. Besides marine cyanobacteria, there is also evidence of cyanobacteria on land.

A spike in chromium contained in ancient rock deposits shows that these rocks, formed underwater, had accumulated chromium washed off from continental shelves by rivers. The researchers chose to focus on chromium because it is not easily dissolved and its release would have required the presence of a powerful acid. One such acid is sulphuric acid, that would have been created through bacterial reactions with pyrite. Though cyanobacteria are responsible for the GOE, they are not the only organisms capable of releasing oxygen. Research has shown that microbial mats of oxygen-producing microbes will produce a thin layer, one or two millimeters thick, of oxygenated water in an otherwise anoxic environment even under thick ice, and before oxygen started accumulating in the atmosphere, organisms living on these mats would already be adapted to being exposed to oxygen. Additionally, the free oxygen reacted with atmospheric methane, a greenhouse gas, greatly reducing its concentration and triggering the Huronian glaciation, possibly the longest snowball Earth episode in Earth's history.

Eventually, aerobic organisms evolved, consuming oxygen and bringing about an equilibrium in its availability. Free oxygen has been an important constituent of the atmosphere ever since.

Explanation from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis#Evolution and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Earth#Oxygen_revolution

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Demonetisation

How we see the same situation from different perspectives...

*Exhibit A*

*_A Small Story_*

To hunt crocodiles, the pond was dried.
No crocodiles were found because they can live on land too.

But all the small fish died.

This story has nothing to do with Demonetisation.




*Exhibit B*

*_The longer version of the small story_*

In another village the pond had really dirty water .. For years (about 60) despite having a huge pond poor farmers had to look upwards to the sky for water for their families ..the pond was never cleaned. The crocodiles were never hunted and no one cared if the fishes died . The water remained murky and could never be used for drinking. The entire village never grew to its potential. Then one day a man took upon himself the challange and decided  to clean the water. Some people who used to sell water tankers to the villagers were not happy and they did every bit to make sure that the man would not succeed.. They threw back dirt in water.. They pulled out the dead fish and called it outcome of water cleaning act.. They blamed it on the guy who was cleaning the water..

While most saw what was happening some still went wayward..

These guys now said that they could still see the crocodile in the water.. They said hey.. The crocodiles are still there .. We can clearly see them. So whats changed

Now thats the moral of the story.. This was never about hunting the crocodile..

This was always about giving fresh water to the village and to make sure the crocs are visible.. So that if they need to be hunted they can be hunted

This long story has everything to do with demonetization and as for the man who wanted to clean the water ..

He's now  planning other cleanups..

So.. in the end that's just how you look at it...πŸ™‚

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Go Cashless

The Prime Minister said,
"Go Cashless"......
.
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Only ATM's have taken it seriously.
πŸ˜πŸ˜€πŸ˜¬πŸ˜‡

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One Way

During the Soviet dictatorship of Stalin, he (Stalin) came to one Politburo meeting with a live chicken. He started to pluck its feathers one by one off.

The chicken quacked in pain, blood oozing from its pores. It gave out heartbreaking cries but Stalin continued without remorse plucking feather after feather until the chicken was completely naked. After that, he threw the chicken on the ground and from his pockets, took out some chicken feed and started to throw it at the poor creature. It started eating and as he walked away, the chicken followed him and sat at his feet feeding from his hand.

Stalin then told members of his party leadership "This chicken represents the people, you must disempower them, brutalise them, beat them up and leave them. If you do this and then give them peanuts when they are in that helpless and desperate situation, they will blindly follow you for the rest of their life.They will think you are a hero forever. They will forget that, it is you who brought them to that situation in the first place."

Does this sound familiar?

Should not blame Appollo hospital.  When you enter greams Road and turn towards Appollo hospital, there is a sign board 'One Way'.   In spite of that many are admitted.😜

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Volumes of confusion

One day an  aeroplane cleaner was cleaning the pilots' cockpit when he saw a book entitled "How to fly an aeroplane for beginners. Volume One".

He opened the first page which said, "To start the engine, press the red button.".  He did so and the airplane engine started.

He was happy and opened the next page. "To set airplane moving press the blue button."

He did so and the aeroplane started moving at an amazing speed.

He wanted to fly so he opened the third page which read, "To let the aeroplane fly, please press the green button."

He did this and the plane started to fly.
He was excited!!!!!!

After 20 minutes of flying, he was satisfied and wanted to land so he decided to go to the fourth page.

He fainted after reading the instructions…….

The fourth page read, "To learn how to land, please purchase Volume Two at the nearest bookshop!!!!

Title of the book was

DEMONETIZATION.
(The govt too is confused now as to how to land safely.)

πŸ˜„πŸ˜„πŸ˜„

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London is the capital of street art

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SELF-PRINTING BILLBOARD CUTS THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DISPLAY ADVERTISING

An EU-funded project has developed a dynamic self-printing advertising solution, harnessing many of the advantages of both paper-based billboards and electronic displays at a fraction of the environmental cost - energy consumption is around 50 times lower than that of LED billboards.

The system, developed in the SPABRINK project and now being refined in a follow-up initiative, uses a specially designed printer and reusable coloured powder to print and re-print display advertising on an electrostatic surface. The self-contained billboard unit is entirely remotely operated, enabling advertisements to be changed and new images uploaded over the internet.

“Paper-based billboards have a serious impact on the environment due to the extensive use of non-recyclable paper and toxic or polluting inks and glues. On the other hand, digital advertising such as LED panels affect our environment by consuming considerable amounts of energy,” says Alexandra TΓ³th-Flink, the SPABRINK coordinator at Ateknea Solutions in Hungary. “SPABRINK is an innovative and environmentally friendlyPtechnology that strikes the right balance between market competitiveness and environmental awareness.”

TΓ³th-Flink points out that every two weeks an estimated six million square metres of poster paper are discarded, and usually not recycled, as paper-based billboards are renewed across Europe. While newer LED displays solve that problem, they consume a considerable amount of energy: approximately 300 watts per square metre, and have also been identified as a potential distraction for drivers.

Zero-waste and low power consumption

The SPABRINK system sits between the two existing billboard advertising solutions, offering many of the advantages of both but at lower financial, labor and environmental cost. With SPABRINK billboards, there is no wastage as the colored powders are reused, and no physical human intervention is needed to change the displays, making them particularly suitable for hard-to-reach locations such as alongside motorways or on rooftops.

Energy consumption is around 50 times lower than that of LED billboards as electricity is only consumed when the display is being changed and the printer is operating. Consumption is so low that the researchers are exploring the possibility of connecting the billboards to their own solar panels, resulting in an entirely self-sufficient solution. Energy-efficient fluorescent bulbs could also be added to back light the display, creating novel features in combination with ultraviolet-sensitive powders.

While the SPABRINK billboards will cost more to install than a paper-based billboard, they are expected to cost less to maintain. Compared to LED displays, required investment is expected to be around four or five times lower.

In addition, the unique qualities of the electrostatic powder mean that billboards no longer have to be conventional flat panels, but can be made in virtually any shape or size, including convex panels that wrap around advertising pillars. Remote operation also enables more versatility and flexibility, allowing advertisers to easily change their adverts every few days or weeks if needed.

By the end of the project, the consortium had built a large-scale prototype with an effective surface area of two square metres which was tested in real outdoor environments by a group of end-user businesses.

Building on that work, the SPABRINK team are launching a follow-up project with support from the European Commission’s funding scheme for Key Enabling Technologies pilot lines, for which new partners have joined the consortium. These include Clear Channel International, a leader in the urban advertising market; VTT, a Finnish firm specializing in electronic printing technologies; and Vega Vizyon, a Turkish manufacturer of urban billboards.

“The aim is to reach a level of technological readiness at which the SPABRINK system is suitable for commercial deployment in the near future,” TΓ³th-Flink concludes.


Contacts and sources:
EC Research and Innovation
SPABRINK

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#NewZealand #Earthquake lifted sea floor 2 metres

The 7.8 magnitude earthquake that hit New Zealand this week lifted the seabed two meters, leaving seaweed-covered rocks and marine animals exposed above tide level. Incredible photographs show the extent of the devastation on South Island's coastline from Monday's quake.
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New Zealand's earthquake was so powerful it lifted the seabed by TWO metres
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More cows stranded on an outcrop of land after three saved
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The landslides have left the cows stranded on small outcrops with sheer drops on all sides.
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Saudi Arabia is banning Chess Game

Saudi Arabia is banning chess, calling it a dangerous game....
Reasons are :
1. Queen doesn't wear a burkha.
2. Queen roams freely wherever she wants to.
3. Queen is more powerful than the King.
4. Queen goes alone to opponent's territory.
5. And....Most importantly, there's only one Queen !!
πŸ˜πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚

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Taxation addiction

wife:-  Darling, how much do you love me ????

Husband:-    86.5%

Wife:-   Huh, why it is not 100%   ????

Husband :-  13.5% VAT is applicable on all transactions.

😜😜😜😜😜😜😜😜

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US presidential election results

The US Presidential
choice is now all about
choosing between ....

the one who was weak
with E-mails and the
one who was weak
with Fe-males....!!!

GOD BLESS AMERICA

πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚

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Filmbo Robotic Dock for your smartphone camera


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Shelter from Mother is Warm always


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Beautiful world

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NASA's telescope finds record-breaking binary in nearby galaxy


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Sounds like Egypt needs Freedom

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Zombie in shade

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Meteor and the Milky Way Galaxy seen over Arches National Park


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Performance, Not Position That Counts.....!!!!!!


A Priest dies & is waiting in line at Heaven's Gate.

Ahead of him is a guy, fashionably dressed, in dark sun glasses, a loud shirt, leather jacket & jeans.

God to the guy :
'' Who Are You....???? ''

Guy :
'' I am Udupi -Mangalore Express Bus driver.....!!!! ''

God : Take this Gold robe & enter kingdom of heaven.

God to the Priest : Who Are You.....???? ''

Priest : I am a priest & spent 40yrs preaching good to people.

God :
'' Take this cotton Robe and enter heaven......!!!! ''

Priest :
'' God, how come that foul mouthed, rash driver gets a Gold &
I spent all my life preaching Good, get Cotton......!!!!! ''

God :
'' Results, my son, Results......

While you Preached,
People Slept,
When he drove,
People Really Prayed.......''

" It's Performance, Not Position That Counts.....!!!!!! "

Awarded As The Best Corporate Joke.

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What it would look like if Saturn-like planet was the same distance away from the Earth as the Moon is?

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Earth seen by Himawari-8 Satellite from 22000 miles (35 400 km) away

Earth seen by Himawari-8 Satellite from 22000 miles (35 400 km) away

Himawari-8 Satellite, Orbit of the Earth

February 10, 2016

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Official opening of Glasgow Airport

June 27, 1966
Official opening of Glasgow Airport
Glasgow Airport is an international airport in Scotland.
In 2015 the airport handled over 8.7 million passengers, making it the second busiest in Scotland, after Edinburgh Airport, and the eighth busiest airport in the United Kingdom.
It is the primary airport serving the west of Scotland and is the principal transatlantic and direct long-haul entry airport into Scotland.
The airport is owned and operated by AGS Airports which also owns and operates Aberdeen and Southampton Airports.
Glasgow Airport originally served the United Kingdom and Europe. The British Airports Authority (BAA) took control of the airport in 1975 and when BAA was privatised in the 1980s, Glasgow Airport began to offer flights to other places around the world.
#50yearsago   #year1966  June 27, 1966
Official opening of Glasgow Airport
Glasgow Airport is an international airport in Scotland.
In 2015 the airport handled over 8.7 million passengers, making it the second busiest in Scotland, after Edinburgh Airport, and the eighth busiest airport in the United Kingdom.
It is the primary airport serving the west of Scotland and is the principal transatlantic and direct long-haul entry airport into Scotland.
The airport is owned and operated by AGS Airports which also owns and operates Aberdeen and Southampton Airports.
Glasgow Airport originally served the United Kingdom and Europe. The British Airports Authority (BAA) took control of the airport in 1975 and when BAA was privatised in the 1980s, Glasgow Airport began to offer flights to other places around the world.
#50yearsago   #year1966  

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Kattappa va Kanum

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