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Black-Listed Companies

Blacklisted companies
List of Blacklisted companies...
be careful with them... please
see the second company in the list!!
Pls go thru the full mail n Dont get into such a situation. Here
is a list of fraud companies which lure people in India
to USA.Please pass this on to all your friends and make them aware
of it.
List of Companies you need to be careful.
1.Mastech Sys
3.Computer People Inc.
5.American MegaTrend Inc.
7.Intelligroup (Edison - New Jersey)
8.Cybertech (Chicago - Ilinnois)
9.Systech (Gelndale - Calif.)
10.IntecNew Jersey. Now it is named as Compuflex.
11.Indotronixs or Indotronics?
12.Capricorn Systems Inc , Atlanta
13.BCC computers Ltd in Madras *** (Dangerously
14.Frontier Systems ***(Highly Black Listed)
15.C G VAK(Coimbatore)
16.Kumaran Software, Anna Nagar, Madras *******(Highly and
Dangerously BlackListed)*******
17.BCS Project Consultants; Bangalore (These people call
themselves BCS Computer Consultancies and Services.
Highly blacklisted.)These people lay false claims of having done
projects for defence organisations.
18.Pragathi Computers; Bangalore. (HighlyBlacklisted)Infact a
Belgium based organisation is planning to take legal
action on this organisation for laiming to do work for NATO.
THESE KIND OF COMPANIES TO ANYBODY. Friends, one of the above
mentioned company is owned by an Indian, Kanna Srinivasan and he
owns a company called BCC computers Ltd in Madras,India. He brings.
programmers under a THREE YEARS bond which says if the employee
quits the company he has to pay Rs10,00,000 (only Ten lakhs). Also
every employee has
to surrender their school and college certificates. The contract
also says that the employees will be paid $40,000 per year.The
company will not pay for
initial 45days or start pay after you get the project in USA. Once
you signed this agreement and surrendered the certificates you have
fallen in their
trap. Then you have only obey their orders as though it is an order
from the god (Kannan P srinivasan). They will take their own time to
your H1B Visa (may be more than a year ). If you ask them you will
be taken to USA, they will humiliate you by saying that your
communication is bad,or you are
not technically good.Recently employee named Mr.Rao committed
suicide in Madras because the company terminated him. told that
company cannot
take him to USA because he is no good technically and communication
is bad. The important point is that he was waiting in the Madras
company for more than 8 months. Now by God's (Kannan P Srinivasan)
grace you reached USA. The Best Computer Consultants ,Kansas City,
USA will make
you to sign another bond with blank Promisary Note Unfilled amount

you owe to the company The company will send you to any project
maintenance, year 2000,(luckily development). You can't refuse any
project or you can't resign when you are on project.If you do so
then the company will
terminate you and further sue you for $10,000 to $30,000). Now the
company has filed a case against 20employees in the Kansas city
district court. The
company will never pay you good,they will never give status on
green card processing if you process with them, they will ask you to
relocation charges,increments will not be given,but on regular
basis you will be tortured by all the HRD and Marketing staff(Sub
Gods).Beware of this
company.Please tell your friends and relatives not to join this
company and suffer.If anyone joined in Madras company please ask
them to
quit immediately. If visa is ready with this company and they are
* *Please forward this information to as many as friends
possible both in USA and INDIA 


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Bullfighting in Barcelona ends with Catalonia ban

Supporters for and against the ban clashed in Barcelona after the fight
About 20,000 spectators filled Barcelona's famous Monumental arena, where top matadors performed.

Bullfighting fans in Catalonia have seen the last fights before a ban on the age-old tradition comes into effect in Spain's north-eastern region.
Lawmakers voted for the ban last year - the first in mainland Spain - after 180,000 people signed a petition.

They say the bullfighting is barbaric, but opponents say they will challenge the ban in Spain's top court.
Sell-out show

Start Quote

For a city like Barcelona to close this arena is like throwing a Picasso painting into the garbage”
CritobalCorrida fan
The ban takes effect on 1 January, but Sunday's fights in Catalonia were the last events of the 2011 season.
Spain's top three matadors performed at the arena on Sunday, including legendary Jose Tomas.
They slayed six half-tonne bulls to loud shouts of "Ole!" of the fans.
After the last animal was killed, the crowd carried the three matadors on their shoulders out of the arena to the applause of onlookers.
"For a city like Barcelona to close this arena is like throwing a Picasso painting into the garbage," Cristobal, one of the fans at the Monumental, was quoted as saying by the AFP news agency.
Tickets for the historic bullfights in Barcelona sold out at record speed. They were trading on the black market for up to five times their original value, the BBC's Sarah Rainsford in Spain reports.
Many corrida (bullfighting) fans protested outside the arena, carrying posters which read "RIP" in blood-red letters and blowing whistles.

But such large crowds have been rare at the Barcelona bullring for some time, and this dwindling support is one reason the regional parliament voted in favour of banning the corrida, our correspondent adds.
She adds that there is also a growing awareness of animal rights and, crucially, the desire of Catalan nationalists to distinguish the region from the rest of Spain and its traditions.
Bullfighting is permitted in all other regions of Spain except in the Canary Islands, which banned it in 1991.
Campaigners hope to extend the ban across the country, but they face a far tougher task in traditional bullfighting heartlands like Andalucia and Madrid, our correspondent says.
She says many people there dismiss all talk of cruelty and argue that the corrida is an age-old art form that must be protected and preserved.


  • Those taking part in the a bullfight are called toreros, while the person in charge of killing the bull is the matador de toros - killer of bulls
  • Fighters can be awarded the bull's ears, tail or hooves as a trophy
  • Barcelona's last bullring, the Monumental, stages 15 fights each year - each contest involves about six bulls
  • Author Ernest Hemmingway was an admirer of Spanish bullfighting and wrote about its rituals in 1932 in Death in the Afternoon
  • The tradition dates back at least 4,000 years and is thought to have been popularised by the Romans
  • It remains popular in southern France, Portugal and some South American countries

Some of the Photos That we Cant take Out from Barcelona in the Future :


Earth Aurora Seen From ISS Orbit Near Indian Ocean

This gorgeous view of the aurora (above) was taken from the International Space Station as it crossed over the southern Indian Ocean on September 17, 2011. The sped-up movie spans the time period from 12:22 to 12:45 PM ET.

Credit: NASA

While aurora are often seen near the poles, this aurora appeared at lower latitudes due to a geomagnetic storm – the insertion of energy into Earth's magnetic environment called the magnetosphere – caused by a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the sun that erupted on September 14, 2011. The storm was a moderate one, rated with what's called a KP index of 6 on a scale that goes from 0 to 9, caused by just a glancing blow from the CME.

How are aurora generated?

As solar particles from an incoming CME move into Earth's magnetosphere they travel around to its back side -- or night side, since it is on the opposite side from the sun -- along the magnetic field lines. When these magnetic field lines reconnect in an area known as the magnetotail, energy is released and it sends the particles down onto Earth's poles, and sometimes even lower latitudes. As the particles bombard oxygen and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere, the atoms release a photon of light that we see as the beautiful colors of the aurora.


Mayakkam Enna Trailer


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Yuvan Yuvathi Movie Online


GNR Kumaravelan, the son of senior director GN Rangarajan, is directing his second film, Yuvan Yuvathi. He has chosen a feel good romantic-comedy subject. With the promotional videos and music, he has successfully evoked interest of the audience towards the Tamil film. Well, let us see what he and his team, which comprises of Bharath and Rima Kallingal, have to offer. Read on for Yuvan Yuvathi review.

Kathiresan (Bharath) is the son of self-important chesty villager Sevaka Pandian (Sampath Raj). The IT graduate is working in a leading software company. His wish is to settle down in the US. But his father does not like his son's changing attitude, as Kathir starts to project himself as an urban guy. To keep his son under his control, his father, who is against love and inter-caste wedding, fixes his marriage with a High Court judge's daughter. On the other end, Kathir falls in love with Nisha (Rima Kallingal), who accidentally meets her at the US Consulate. Their friendship starts with a fighting but Kathir ends up being in love.

They start bonding after Kathir helps Nisha to get her a fresh passport that she lost during their initial fight. Soon, both of them get visa but when they are all set for the journey, a shocking news hits Kathir badly. In fact, Nisha was going to her marriage in the US. But, a twist in the tale arrives, when his father misreads their friendship as love and kidnaps her before leaving abroad. However, he saves her but her wedding gets cancelled. Later, Kathir tries to persuade Nisha to love him but she leaves to Seychelles. After ten months, they came face to face again. What happens next should be seen on-screen

Click here to Watch the movie Online : Yuvan Yuvathi Online Movie


Veppam Movie Online


The whole film unfolds in a slum in Chennai. Balaji (Muthukumar), after his mother's death and his father Jothi (Shimmore), a drunkard, leaves him on streets, works hard and ensures a decent living for his younger brother Karthik (Nani). Karthik, who studies in an engineering college, spends all his time with his friend Vishnu (Evam Karthik), who is also brought up in the locality. There is Revathy (Nithya Menen) in the neighbourhood, who loves Karthik desperately. Meanwhile Jothi takes to illegal ways and makes money working for a woman drug peddler Ammaji (Jennifer). Knowing that Vishnu is in love with Viji (Bindhu Madhavi), a call girl in the locality, Jothi decides to exploit him for his selfish gain. He gives him an assignment - to transport drugs to Pondicherry, promising to give him Viji if he completes the work. Vishnu takes the help of Karthik and goes to Pondy. However sensing that something is fishy... Written by Raju 

Click here to watch the movie online: Veppam Online Movie


Mayakkam Enna Songs

Kaadhal Enna Kaadhal: Awesome Song With Great Meanings :) <3 it a lot

Mayakkam Enna Oda Oda Oda Dhooram Korayala

Pirai Thedum....


New Technique For Filling Gaps In Fossil Record

University of Pennsylvania evolutionary biologists have resolved a long-standing paleontological problem by reconciling the fossil record of species diversity with modern DNA samples.

Cataloging the diversity of life on earth is challenging enough, but when scientists attempt to draw a phylogeny — the branching family tree of a group of species over their evolutionary history — the challenge goes from merely difficult to potentially impossible. The fossil record is the only direct evidence scientists have about the history of species diversity, but it can be full of holes or totally nonexistent, depending on the type of organisms. The only hope in such cases is to infer historical diversity from modern DNA sequences, but such techniques have a fatal flaw: the results they provide are demonstrably incorrect.

A whale skeleton from the Galapagos Islands 
Photo: Mike Weston

The Penn team has developed a new technique for analyzing phylogenies and shown that the results stand up against the known fossil history of whale species, a gold standard in terms of fossil records.

“We’ve put contemporary molecular approaches on equal footing with classical paleontological approaches,” said Joshua B. Plotkinof the Department of Biology in Penn’s School of Arts and Sciencesand theDepartment of Computer and Information Science in the School of Engineering and Applied Science.

Plotkin conducted the research along with postdoctoral fellows Hélène Morlon and Todd Parsons, both of Biology.

Their work will appear in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The limitations of the fossil record — and the lack of good alternatives — represent a longstanding problem in paleontology. Some species, due to the makeup of their bodies or the geology of the areas where they lived, don’t leave fossils. If they leave any legacy to the present, it must be inferred from the DNA of their modern descendants, or from the descendents of their relatives.

For a few decades, scientists have compared the DNA of modern species, making mathematical inferences about the history of species diversity in a group going back to their most recent common ancestor. This reconstructive technique held much promise for the field, but a problem with the approach is now evident.

“When scientists use these phylogenetic techniques, they always infer patterns of increasing diversity. In whatever group of species they inspect, they see virtually no extinctions and a steadily increasing number of species over time,” Plotkin said. “This molecular inference is problematic because it’s known to be false. The fossil record clearly shows extinctions and long periods of diversity loss.“

The cetaceans, a group of species that includes whales, dolphins and porpoises, are ideal for testing ideas about evolutionary diversification, as their fossil record is especially clear. Because they are large animals, and the sea floor is well suited to fossilization, paleontologists are confident that the cetaceans came into existence about 35 million years ago and reached a peak of diversity about 10 million years ago. The number of cetaceans then crashed from about 150 species to the 89 species in existence today.

“The problem with phylogenetic inferences is that you get the opposite view when you apply it to the cetaceans. You would see the number of whale species increasing over time, so that the 89 species we have today is the apex. But we know that this is flat-out wrong because it’s directly contradicted by the boom-then-bust pattern in the fossil record.”

This realization was a major blow for the field; if molecular reconstructions can’t be trusted, there would be no way for scientists to ever learn the history of species that don’t have good fossil records. The only hope was that phylogenetic methods could be refined.

In their study, Plotkin and his colleagues added new variables to these methods. The flaw in existing techniques was the reliance on a static rate of diversification. Because that variable could never be negative, the number of species inferred necessarily increased over time.

“What we’ve done is a fairly modest extension of these techniques, but we allow for changing rates of speciation and extinction over time and among lineages,” Plotkin said. “Most importantly, we allow for periods of time during which the extinction rate exceeds the speciation rate.”

When applied to the DNA of the 89 whale species that survive today, Plotkin’s molecular method closely matched the dynamics in the number of whale species during the last 35 million years as determined through traditional paleontological approaches.

“It’s almost miraculous that we can inspect the DNA sequences of organisms living today and figure out how many such species were present millions of years ago,” Plotkin said. “We’re studying some of the largest species to have ever existed, and we are deciphering their evolutionary history based on information encoded in microscopic DNA molecules.”

The research was supported by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and James S. McDonnell Foundation.

Contacts and sources:
University of Pennsylvania 


CT Study Of Early Humans Reveals Evolutionary Relationships

Computer tomography (CT) scans of fossil skull fragments may help researchers settle a long-standing debate about the evolution of Africa’s Australopithecus, a key ancestor of modern humans that died out some 1.4 million years ago. The study, to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, explains how CT scans shed new light on a classic evolutionary puzzle by providing crucial information about the internal anatomy of the face.

A photograph of 'Sts 5', the most well-preserved specimen of Australopithecus africanus. Image courtesy of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, formerly the Transvaal Museum.

Credit: UCL

For decades scientists have disagreed about the significance of facial features shared by a number of Australopithecus species, and in particular two bony columns known as “anterior pillars” that extend up from the canine teeth and bracket the nasal opening.

Dr Brian Villmoare (UCL and The George Washington University) and Professor William Kimbel (Arizona State University) analysed CT scans of fossil skull fragments from five Australopithecus species and found that beneath the skin the internal structure of the anterior pillars is quite different for different species. According to the authors, South Africa’s A. robustus and East Africa’s A. boisei had solid columns of dense, spongy bone tissue and were probably sister species, while A. africanus (also from South Africa) probably evolved in parallel as its pillars are simply hollow columns of bone.

The authors argue that these structural differences show that anterior pillars evolved via different pathways in different species. The findings challenge long-standing theories that similar external facial features represent shared traits inherited from a common ancestor, and suggest instead that external similarities in South Africa’s A. africanus and A. robustus were due to parallel evolution.

“We believe that the detailed similarities in the internal anatomy of the face strongly supports the hypothesis that there was a single evolutionary branch of ’robust australopithecines’, and that the A. africanus and A. boisei forms both shared a common ancestor,” says Dr Villmoare. “The external similarity of the anterior pillar in other Australopith species may be related to convergence on a similar dietary niche, but does not seem to indicate shared ancestry.”

The full article, 'CT-based study of internal structure of the anterior pillar in extinct hominins and its implications for the phylogeny of robust Australopithecus' is published in PNAS Online, Monday 19th September.

Source: University College London 

The George Washington University
Arizona State University


'Inexhaustible' Source Of Hydrogen May Be Unlocked By Salt Water

A grain of salt or two may be all that microbial electrolysis cells need to produce hydrogen from wastewater or organic byproducts, without adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or using grid electricity, according to Penn State engineers.

"This system could produce hydrogen anyplace that there is wastewater near sea water," said Bruce E. Logan, Kappe Professor of Environmental Engineering. "It uses no grid electricity and is completely carbon neutral. It is an inexhaustible source of energy."

Bruce Logan's bacterial hydrolysis cell with reverse electrodialysis stack. 
Bruce Logan's bacterial hydrolysis cell with reverse electrodialysis stack.  Credit: Bruce Logan, Penn State
Credit: Bruce Logan, Penn State

Microbial electrolysis cells that produce hydrogen are the basis of this recent work, but previously, to produce hydrogen, the fuel cells required some electrical input. Now, Logan, working with postdoctoral fellow Younggy Kim is using the difference between river water and seawater to add the extra energy needed to produce hydrogen.

Their results, published in today's (Sept. 19) issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, "show that pure hydrogen gas can efficiently be produced from virtually limitless supplies of seawater and river water and biodegradable organic matter."

Logan's cells were between 58 and 64 percent efficient and produced between 0.8 to 1.6 cubic meters of hydrogen for every cubic meter of liquid through the cell each day. The researchers estimated that only about 1 percent of the energy produced in the cell was needed to pump water through the system.

The key to these microbial electrolysis cells is reverse-electrodialysis or RED that extracts energy from the ionic differences between salt water and fresh water. A RED stack consists of alternating ion exchange membranes -- positive and negative -- with each RED contributing additively to the electrical output.

"People have proposed making electricity out of RED stacks," said Logan. "But you need so many membrane pairs and are trying to drive an unfavorable reaction."

For RED technology to hydrolyze water -- split it into hydrogen and oxygen -- requires 1.8 volts, which would in practice require about 25 pairs of membrane sand increase pumping resistance. However, combining RED technology with exoelectrogenic bacteria -- bacteria that consume organic material and produce an electric current -- reduced the number of RED stacks to five membrane pairs.

Previous work with microbial electrolysis cells showed that they could, by themselves, produce about 0.3 volts of electricity, but not the 0.414 volts needed to generate hydrogen in these fuel cells. Adding less than 0.2 volts of outside electricity released the hydrogen. Now, by incorporating 11 membranes -- five membrane pairs that produce about 0.5 volts -- the cells produce hydrogen.

"The added voltage that we need is a lot less than the 1.8 volts necessary to hydrolyze water," said Logan. "Biodegradable liquids and cellulose waste are abundant and with no energy in and hydrogen out we can get rid of wastewater and by-products. This could be an inexhaustible source of energy."

Logan and Kim's research used platinum as a catalyst on the cathode, but subsequent experimentation showed that a non-precious metal catalyst, molybdenum sulfide, had 51 percent energy efficiency.

The King Abdullah University of Science and Technology supported this work.


How Diamonds Emerge From Graphite

Scientists have used a new method to precisely simulate the phase transition from graphite to diamond for the first time. Instead of happening concerted, all at once, the conversion evidently takes place in a step by step process involving the formation of a diamond seed in the graphite, which is then transformed completely at high pressure.

Diamonds can be produced artificially only under difficult conditions. The latest simulations have now shown exactly how graphite is converted into diamond. 
Diamonds can be produced artificially only under difficult conditions. The latest simulations have now shown exactly how graphite is converted into diamond. (Image: iStockphoto)
Credit: iStockphoto

The contrast between the naturally occurring forms of elemental carbon – as grey-black graphite or sparkling diamond – is greater than for almost any other material. The substantial difference between the two forms is mainly due to their crystal structure, which is cubic in the case of diamond and hexagonal for graphite. This gives rise to the different properties of the two materials and makes diamond the hardest known material, alongside the comparatively soft graphite. This is why diamonds are not only in demand as an attractive gemstone but are also important as an industrial tool, e.g. for grinding or sawing.

An uncomfortable transition

The artificial production of diamond from graphite was first achieved around 60 years ago. However, the high pressure and high temperatures needed to produce diamond are among the reasons why graphite is not converted into diamond on a large scale. The process is time-consuming and energy-intensive, because the manufacture of synthetic diamonds requires forcing the inexpensive carbon to change its bonding structure and thus the arrangement of its electrons. It must form four bonds instead of three, and must change from an energetically “comfortable” state to an “uncomfortable” one. To do this the carbon must overcome a large energy barrier.

Knowing exactly how this conversion occurs, and when the carbon changes into diamond, is important for materials research but was unclear until now. Michele Parrinello, Professor of Computational Science at ETH Zurich and the Università della Svizzera italiana in Lugano, and his team have developed a method with which they have successfully simulated this phase transition accurately and adequately using computer models.

Simplification yields a false picture

In the past, scientists tried to model the phase transition by using the so-called Car-Parrinello method (see ETH Life of 7.10.2010). This approximately determines the structure and energy state of the electrons for each position in the ion to enable the simulation of bonds that break and re-form. The procedure is based on a method developed by Parrinello in collaboration with Roberto Car more than 25 years ago. “However, so many atoms need to be taken into account in the phase transition from graphite to diamond that an exact simulation would be too expensive,” says Parrinello. This is why, until now, the researchers resorted to a simplified method by carrying out the simulation with far fewer atoms, but according to Parrinello this caused the models to give the impression that the whole of the graphite changed into diamond all at once, as if on command.

However, the new method now shows a different picture of the process. The scientists used the supercomputer at CSCS (the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre to calculate tens of thousands of configurations of atoms with slightly differing energy states. This means that the atomic configurations cover a broad spectrum of possible energy states. After the scientists had interpolated their energy states and used this as a basis for their simulation, it became apparent that first of all a diamond seed is formed, and at high pressure this progressively converts the hexagonal crystal structure of the graphite into a cubic one.

Simulating the phase transition with the new method also revealed that structural defects in the graphite crystal lattice reduce the energy barriers that have to be overcome in order to form a diamond seed. Structural defects can therefore speed up the conversion process. “The method can be used wherever there is a need to visualise phase transitions,” Stresses Parrinello.

Contacts and sources:
ETH Life
Story by Simone Ulmer

Literature reference:

Khaliullin, RZ, Eshet, H, Kühne, TD, Jörg Behler, J & Parrinello, M: Nucleation mechanism for the direct graphite-to-diamond phase transition, Nature Materials (2011), 10, 693–697, DOI: doi:10.1038/nmat3078


10 Amazing Facts About Dreams

Dreaming is a phenomenon that is not well understood or easily explained. There are many theories as to why we dream and what our dreams mean, but it’s difficult to explore and interpret the realm of the subconscious. Despite the fact that dreams are difficult to study, scientists have managed to learn a great deal about these subconscious thoughts and desires. Here are 10 amazing facts about dreams that will truly blow your mind:

Jacob's dream of a ladder of angels, c. 1690, by Michael Willmann

We Spend About Two Hours Dreaming Each Night 

Although your dreams may feel like they last for hours and hours, we only actually spend about two hours dreaming each night. That means a person spends a total of about six years dreaming throughout their lifetime. There are four stages of the sleep cycle and the last stage, called REM sleep, is where almost all dreaming takes place. Each sleep cycle lasts about 60 to 90 minutes and will repeat throughout the night. 

The Most Common Dreams Involve Falling, Being Chased, School, Cheating And Your Teeth Falling Out 

Since we know that anxiety is the most common emotion experienced in dreams, it’s no surprise that the most common dreams have negative content that would cause anxiety. Dreaming of falling is very common and often correlates to something in your life that is going the wrong direction. Many people also dream of being chased, which has been tied to avoidance. Dreams about teeth falling out are frequently reported and have been connected to your words and communication. People also report reoccurring dreams of their spouse cheating on them, which often has more to do with being "cheated" out of quality time with your spouse than infidelity. Lastly, dreams of being in school are common for adults at any age, which has been linked to work and the pressures from your job.

Nearly 75% Of The Content In Dreams Is Negative 

Most dreams won’t leave you happy and smiling. According to research, nearly 75% of dreams contain negative content. The emotions experienced in dreams vary from anger, joy, fear and happiness, but the most common emotion in dreams is anxiety. In addition, negative emotions are more common than positive ones.

Dreaming Helps Relieve Stress 

Dreaming help us make sense of the information and events that happen in our lives. Dreams play an important role in processing and memorizing information that we absorb every day. These subconscious thoughts also help relieve stress and even solve problems. It’s very possible to work through real life problems while dreaming at nighttime. They also provide a great deal of important content and meaning that can be used to inspire and direct our lives in the daytime. 

Five To 10% Of Adults Have Monthly Nightmares 

Nightmares are most common in children between the ages of three or four and seven or eight. Adults have fewer nightmares overall, but they do happen from time to time. According to the International Association for the Study of Dreams, about five to 10% of adults have nightmares once a month or more often.
 There are a number of reasons adults may experience nightmares, such as medications or withdrawal from drugs, as well as physical conditions like stress and illness. Others experience nightmares after a traumatic event that becomes a reoccurring theme. However, some adults have frequent nightmares that are unrelated to their daily lives, which may indicate that they are more creative, sensitive and emotional than the average person. 

The Average Person Has About Three To Five Dreams Each Night 

There’s no limit to the number of dreams you can have while sleeping, but the average person has about three to five dreams each night. Some people can have up to seven or more dreams in one night. On average, we spend about two hours dreaming during a full eight hours of sleep. Shorter dreams happen in the beginning of the sleep cycle and tend to last longer throughout the rest of the night. 

„Nachtmahr“ (“Night-mare”), Johann Heinrich Füssli (1802) 
File:Johann Heinrich Füssli 053.jpg

Everyone Dreams, But Not Everyone Recalls Their Dreams 

It’s a fact that everyone dreams, but not everyone remembers their dreams. The most vivid dreams occur during Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep when the brain is very active and the eyes move back and forth rapidly beneath the eyelids. Dream recall varies from person to person, but some people have little or no recollection of the content of their dream. Since 90% of dreams are forgotten after the first 10 minutes of being awake, the dream content needs to be documented right away. Keep a pen and paper by your bedside and try to write down as much information as possible to find the meaning behind your dreams.

Blind People Do Not See Visual Images In Their Dreams, But Their Other Senses Are Heightened 

Most blind people do not see images when they dream, but they do experience a heightened level of taste, touch and smell in their dreams. Whereas people with normal vision experience intensely visual dreams, but have decreased auditory stimulation and the other senses are mostly absent. Researchers have found that those who lost their sight before age five rarely saw images in their dreams, but those who go blind after age five may continue to see images in their dreams. 

About 90% Of Dream Content Is Forgotten After 10 Minutes Of Being Awake 
Dreams aren’t easy to recall. Just five minutes after the end of a dream, you are likely to forget half of the content. At 10 minutes, about 90% of the content has been forgotten. It’s not that dreams aren’t important enough to remember, but other things have a tendency to get in the way. As forward thinkers, we often forget things when we first wake up and carry on with our days. There are many plausible theories as to why we forget dreams. Freud believed that dreams were repressed thoughts and desires that weren’t necessary to believe anyway. However, dream researcher, L. Strumpell, theorized that we forget dreams for several reasons, such as a lack of intense dream images, as well as little association and repetition to help us learn and remember. 

Animals Also Have Dreams 
Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology discovered that animals do in fact dream and their subconscious thoughts are tied to actual experiences. Animals’ dreams are complex and they are able to retain long sequences of events while sleeping. Animals’ brains share the same series of sleeping states as humans, as well as replaying events or parts of events that happened while awake. Analyzing animals’ dreams and the content of dream states may help scientists more effectively treat memory disorders and develop new ways for people to learn and retain information.


Dozens of people have been killed and many more injured after a magnitude 6.9 earthquake shook north-eastern India, Nepal and Tibet!!!

The epicentre of the earthquake was in India's mountainous Sikkim state, where at least 18 people were killed.
Rain and landslides are hindering search and rescue operations there and officials in Sikkim fear that the toll could rise further.
Several earthquakes hit the region this year, but none caused major damage.
At least five people were killed in Nepal, police there say, and at least seven died in Tibet, China's official Xinhua news agency reported. At least six other people were killed in other Indian states.
Officials in all regions say the death toll is likely to rise as rescuers reach the remote mountainous areas struck by the quake.
Power cuts
The quake struck the mountainous north-eastern Indian state of Sikkim at 18:10 (12:40 GMT) on Sunday, according to the US Geological Survey, and was followed by two strong aftershocks.
Telephone lines were knocked out across the state, while power cuts plunged Gangtok, the capital, into darkness just seconds after the quake hit.
Hundreds of people there spent the night on the streets after buildings developed cracks, reports say.
Tremors were felt in the north-eastern Indian states of Assam, Meghalaya, and Tripura. They were also felt in regions of India: West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chandigarh and Delhi. Bangladesh and Bhutan also felt the quake.
One person was killed during a stampede as people panicked in a town in the eastern state of Bihar, and other deaths were reported near Darjeeling, in West Bengal.
Landslides have blocked the two main highways linking Sikkim with the rest of the country making it difficult for the rescue workers to reach the area, reports say.
Buildings evacuated
Just over the border in Tibet's Yadong County, just 40km (miles) from Sikkim, the earthquake caused hundreds of landslides disrupting traffic, telecommunications, power and water supplies.
A woman, center who was injured in a building collapse that followed an earthquake is brought for treatment at a hospital in Siliguri, India, Sunday, Sept. 18, 2011Dozens of people were injured due to building collapses and falling debris
Chinese authorities said relief supplies were on the way to the area.
In Kathmandu, 270km (170 miles) west of the quake's epicentre, buildings were evacuated and traffic came to a standstill.
Three people died when a wall of the British Embassy collapsed. Those dead included a motorcyclist and his eight-year-old child who were struck as they rode past, police said.
Two others died in Dharan in Sunsari district, including a five-year-old child, according to the the Himalayan Times newspaper.



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